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Untold Histories in Arizona’s Copper Mining Communities


Common narratives about the early mining settlements in Arizona often highlight the contributions of male prospectors, military personnel, adventurers, entrepreneurs, and the iconic Western pioneers who have been the subjects of numerous books, films, and TV shows. Regrettably, the significant and varied roles played by women in the establishment of Arizona's growing industrial communities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries have not received adequate recognition. During this period, many Apache men secured employment in the copper mines and related communities in the eastern central part of Arizona. While some Apache individuals assimilated into the Anglo American way of life and work structures within the mining industry, they managed to preserve elements of their traditional culture and values. The diverse array of individuals involved in the early copper mines of Arizona had an impact on and were influenced by the development of social norms, laws, and community regulations.

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Untold Histories in Arizona’s Copper Mining Communities
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